Class 7 – Mounting Motors and Party Box

While it feels a little anticlimactic to have this “party box” be my final project for Intro to Fabrication, I’m glad we were given this assignment.  I was able to get past some of my hang ups as to how to mount a motor, and how to mount something to the motor. Better to get this over with now, rather than during a final project!

My gif may not be loading, so here is:

A video:  http://www.itpblogelizabethferguson.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/IMG_0315.mov

And if that isn’t working, here is a link to google drive: If that doesn’t work, here is a link to Google Drive. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B7CieHonJ8X4NllnaldjNUlPUVU?usp=sharing

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I pretty much only focused on the motor and mounting tasks so that I was sure to learn how to do it, or at least get to the point at which I can understand creating something more complicated next time.  Therefore my project doesn’t have much of a concept. Designed paper helps punch up the box!

It was also really nice to build something super simple with just a battery, wires, rocker switch, and DC motor toy.  Turning something on and off without a microcontroller is a nice change of pace.

Along the way, I did a separate test to see how different LED colors might mix as new colors if spun on cardboard by the motor. Exploring this let me play around with building circuits with copper tape, coin batteries, and LEDs, which is something I had wanted to try just for fun.  But in the end I had enough on my plate to learn how to mount a DC motor.

You can see my process below!

Parts

I used a toy DC Motor, mounting bracket, and 2 – 5mm coupling shaft to extend the shaft of the motor to be able to add something to it. I can’t believe I paid a dollar more for the mounting bracket than the toy DC motor itself, considering the bracket didn’t come with screws!

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dc motor bracket

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Here is my work after attaching the coupling shaft and additional longer shaft to the motor. I am still not totally clear as to how I would permanently attach anything to the extended shaft, as Tinkersphere didn’t have many parts for me to work with. What I have so far seems like a catch 22… Sure, I made the shaft longer, but I still need something to mount my object to it. Granted, my kit of little plastic wheels didn’t arrive yet. Maybe I could have put one of those on this shaft, and hot glued cardboard to the wheel?

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Here it is spinning with a coin battery. It spun a lot faster than I expected.

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See below for my experiments with copper tape and coin battery to light up an LED. I had fun. One reason I stopped this side project was because I had to use one coin battery for each LED, which added more weight to the cardboard circle than I could counterbalance for an even spin. I can order some micro LEDs next time.

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Below is a video showing what happens when I put a red LED next to a blue LED. The combination creates more of a magenta than purple in person, and in the video/gif still shows the two colors separately.  I’m sure there are examples I can find online to continue this project, and that my classmates have even done this work professionally. I’m interested in how LEDs and lighting projection and pixels work, so I’m on my way…

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Back to my main goals… I definitely wanted to be able to turn the motor on and off with a switch. I decided to use a rocker switch.

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I saw online that you can complete a circuit with a rocker switch just by twisting wires together, without soldering, as long as the motor and battery share common ground.

As for installing the rocker switch, I used a utility blade to cut the hole for the rocker switch component. But of course in the future, I can use Illustrator and the laser cutter for a more precise job.

You can see my first step needed to be installing the rocker switch from the outside of the cardboard so that it would be flush against the surface. And then I needed to connect the switch to the motor and battery before I could even mount the motor, which seemed counterintuitive… But otherwise the size of the box was too small for my hands to be able to twist the wires as needed.

Here is halfway through connecting the circuit by twisting wires together.

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And below shows the circuit completex. I’m missing documentation of my struggles with mounting the motor. I couldn’t believe the motor didn’t come with screws!!!  I was lucky to find tiny screws in the shop. But they fit poorly, which led to a loose fitting. The motor even fell out of the bracket if I stood the box up. As a workaround, I covered the battery in painter’s tape to make it big enough to stay stuck in the bracket. This is NOT a good longterm solution, as the motor wiggles when it’s “on”,  causing it to push itself out of the bracket.

See below for the “before” picture with painter’s tape.

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And “after” – the motor’s motion has pushed itself down out of the bracket and will eventually fall out.

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Here are other photos of the inside of the box, to show that I used wood only on one side of the box to mounting the motor to, and otherwise used cardboard. I used a glue gun to wallpaper the designed paper I had on hand to the outside of the box.

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Here’s the final product again. I added a flag to show the shaft is spinning.  Something to turn on whenever there is a party? New Year’s Eve? Or maybe it can play marching band music, to bring to the local Fourth of July parade.

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Class 5 – Invisible Ink Characters – Fabricating with two materials

I created a main character surrounded by minor characters that define it, made of brass metal and layered colored paper cut by the laser cutter.

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As for fabrication skills and materials, I wanted to learn how to print my own sketches as layered pieces. It was nice to create something more handmade (while my Adobe Suite skills catch up to what’s in my mind…) Next time I’d like to learn how to use the vinyl cutter. I didn’t go the vinyl route because I could only find vinyl with adhesive backing online, when I only wanted regular non-stick vinyl.

My second material is thin brass metal which is very bendable. I liked being able to sculpt it with my own hands, and rivet together different pieces.

When it comes to the concept of the piece, the larger question I’m asking is “How is someone defined by who or what surrounds them?”   This piece plays with ideas from a project I worked on over the summer.  You can read below about the background if you wish. The main and minor characters are chosen from a 19th century book, described below.

 


Background (not necessary to read unless you’re really interested! Mostly for me to reference later.)

This idea is based on a digital humanities project I contributed to this summer. My friends Sarah Berkowitz and James Ascher at University of Virginia explored the nature of character and digital transcription using github and analysis. Their project focused on Characters, the second volume of a book called Genuine Remains by Samuel Butler, a 19th century author in England.  Each chapter in the book is a brief description of a stereotypical person, such as “A Wooer, ” “An Astrologer,” and a “Corrupt Judge”. The descriptions are biting, witty, and act a bit like a dictionary of people. You can see online the transcription and analysis here on this website and over here on Github.

However, the chapters happen only feature male main characters. Not surprising for the 19th century! The absence made us wonder about the “invisible ink” characters that surround each main character. How do these passing characters add definition and meaning to the main character? Are they mentioned across multiple main characters? Sarah analyzed a group of chapters to categorize “non-specific humans,” “proper names,” “mythological creatures,” and “animals”.

One note – the main character in this project is actually an alderman, which is a word dating back before the 12th century but is still used to today to describe an elected official. For example, a city council member.  In this case, he’s surrounded by a king, a skinned rabbit, a table full of food, and a rooster. All of these smaller characters are mentioned as a way to describe the qualities of an alderman in a book I mentioned above.


The Process

I started with a sketch.   You can see I had the original idea of an empty figure who’s exterior negative space was taken up by little figures.

I switched from “A Bankrupt” to “An Alderman”. I thought a politician might be more relevant to the news today.

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The chapter describing the alderman, found in its digital form here.

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Below is my first sketch in pencil and then pen. I found a picture of a person online to draw.

Honestly, it was hard to make a politician instantly recognizable based only on their outline. Something to think about going forward.

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I selected the most visual and meaningful minor characters mentioned in the chapter above. And drew them.

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I mocked up dummies to place around the figure to work out their sizing.

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I went to Metalliforous, the metal store on 46th Street.  I asked for their advice on materials, and they suggested brass strips.

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I went to Blick to buy mat board. But mat board was too expensive to buy multiple colored sheets.

So I bought cheap “railroad” paper for 86 cents each! (This photo is taken after I cut off what I needed to laser print).

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Next, I figured out how to use Illustrator’s Image Trace to trace my sketches, properly join and clean up all of Illustrator’s paths, and then finally prepare each sketch’s layers so that I could print each shape on the right colored paper.

I also cut 5 x 5 inch pieces of paper to print on. This was large enough to fit all my sketch layers, but allowed me to save the rest of my material for another project.

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Here is some chicken scratch (no pun intended) showing my measurements and layering logic.

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The paper was on the thicker side, but still thin enough to be moved out of place by the laser’s “thumb”. I learned to tape a corner of it to the laser cutter’s bed.

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All my paper parts.IMG_0137

I used needle nose pliers and my hands to bend the wire.

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Testing the material.

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Drilling the brass to later rivet with the rivet gun.

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There are more pictures showing the figure with rivets but I can’t upload them. at the moment.

Here are more details of my final prototype.

The small characters are taped to tabs, upon which I added magnets.

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Magnets shown (large flat circles). I borrowed them from my refrigerator. Next time I can figure out how to glue or affix them to the brass.IMG_0163

Class 4 – Enclosure for a Sunlight Song Player

For this Intro to Fabrication assignment to create an enclosure, I chose to work on my current project in Intro to Physical Computing. I’m designing a musical instrument that you can press onto your window. When the sunlight comes out, it plays a song such as “Here Comes The Sun” by the Beatles. I’m imagining it would take the shape of an abstract sun, and made of translucent material in order to let the light in through the object as well.

Below is my current prototype.

For now I chose to use cardboard because this was my first time measuring precise holes for components, and I knew I wanted to change the shape later on.  Over the next few iterations I would use yellow mat board, and then eventually  yellow acrylic. Also, the back would use a suction cup or two. Eventually, I would learn to use a light sensor from Adafruit to place on the back of the object to face the outside. I’d place this behind a small plate of clear acrylic so that light can enter.

You can see I also used dowel pins instead of metal standoffs for the same reasons.

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Below is an example drawing of what I have in mind.

However, by now I’ve come to the conclusion that I’d like the shape of the object to be an abstract sun, not a typical sun shape (as drawn below). Otherwise the design in total seems too on the nose… meaning each design element (the light sensor, the songs about the sun, and the shape) become too literal. Perhaps if I make the sun to be abstract like in my prototype, the total effect to be more interesting.

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For now, a lot of my design decisions were determined by the size of my components. The object had to be large enough to house the microcontroller, the bread board, and the battery.  Likewise, the control panel had to be large enough to accommodate the buttons and sensor.

For now, the front and inside.

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Soon I would create this back piece, once I learn how to place the specialized light sensor.

 

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Once I had a sketch in my notebook, I started putting my design into Illustrator.

Here you can see the time I took to measure each component using an analog caliper. I then used these measurements to update my Illustrator shapes to match the size of my components.

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In this Illustrator file below you can see I did two things that don’t appear in my final prototype.

  • Added lines to measure the distance between objects, which I later removed before printing to the laser cutter. Could I have added these to another layer in the same file, which would not have printed? Do the laser printers only print the first layer, or do they print all included layers?
  • Created sides for the enclosure. However, I saved finishing these for another time so I could focus on completing the control panel. Next time I’d be ready to do measurements to create sides like the ones found in this Nixie Tube project (image below).

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Nixie tube sides.

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On the 50w laser cutter I used these steps to cut cardboard. The cardboard was thicker than what I used last time. This time I used auto focus! I also used 600 DPI. My other settings are below.

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Front side:

First time – 50/50/500

Second time – 20 / 50 / 500

Third and fourth time – 20 / 75 / 500

Back side:

Three times – 20 / 75 / 500

One question I have is how much does DPI matter?  The printer’s list of material settings  makes adjustments based on DPI.

 


A major component of my control panel that did not print well is the TEXT on it…

You can hardly see it. Granted I only managed to make 9 font size fit due to limitations of my components’ sizes.  However, I followed the ITP Illustrator Laser Printer tutorial on the Shop’s website which mentions how to set text. I used the color black and did nothing else as suggested. However, when I sent the file to the laser printer, I got a pop up dialog box that said it would have to turn the font into an object.

Why did the text etching become white? Whereas the sun etching became black?

What settings should I have used for text?

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Here are a few more photos of my final prototype. My buttons aren’t flush with the holes for three reasons.

  • I didn’t have the perfect height to lift my breadboard enough to match the height of my components (I used my phone to give it some height, as you can see below).
  • The hole I cut for the on/off button wasn’t big enough!
  • My jumper wires are quite long and create additional unnecessary height because they aren’t cut to be flush with the board and microcontroller yet. I’ll do this once I’m sure my circuit is final!

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In the future, you would also see my battery and if being used, my USB to microntroller cable.

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Below phone is being used to give my breadboard height. My dowel pins look a little wonky.

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Different angle.

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Class 3 Prototype for a Playful Clock with Laser Cutter

This clock lets you tell time any way you want. With different magnet sets you can map out your day. Since I may want to develop this idea in the future, I chose to learn using the laser cutter with cardboard and masking tape as my materials instead of investing in acrylic and magnets right away.

For me, this clock is a playful way to undo time when you don’t need it. I myself can over-plan, and on top of that, our fast-paced world is sped up by technologies we use every day. It might be nice to have a clock that helps you simplify your day or adds some punchy humor.

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Photos above: As you can see, the clock can show something simple like when your awake or asleep. Or you can still use it as a regular clock. Or you can even tell stories – for example, that you have to leave at 1pm to catch a flight, and then you’re on vacation!

I have lots of ideas about what magnet sets I can design, whether symbols, words, or numbers.  I’ll have a lot of fun asking people what kinds of magnets they’d like to have!

From a design perspective, I do have at least one critical decision to make. How would I address the fact that you can only “fill out” the clock for 12 hours at a time? (The easiest solution I can think of is to create an AM and PM magnet that you can put on the face of the clock if you like.)

For now, on to documenting the process!

PROCESS

1. I made many sketches to flesh out my idea. (Apologies for the out of focus images. Not sure what is happening.)

Below is my idea of a clock, which shows how the magnets themselves would be glued to the back of the clock face.  The paired magnet would be on the back of each time piece.

You can see a ruler at the bottom of the picture, showing my test to see if magnets work through acrylic. I’ll have to further test, though…

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Here I’m deciding whether I’d like to create connected/cut/vector pieces in Illustrator, or “separate”/etched and cut/raster and vector pieces. I ended up liking the visual factor of the negative space of the fully cut pieces using vector images.

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Below I’m deciding how large the clock should be. 10.5 inches felt right. Plus I knew it had to fit inside the bed of the laser cutter which only allows materials that are 12 x 24 inches. I’m also guesstimating how large the time pieces should be. I decided about an inch tall felt right.

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You can see below that I made lots of measurements and drawings to figure out:

  • What width of material is required to sit behind the clock face, so that it “holds” the face of the clock upright even if there is the added weight of magnet pieces?
  • What diameter should that second piece of material be, so that it covers up the clock mechanism from view (if the clock face is made of transparent acrylic, since it could be interesting to see the second piece).
  • At the time, I thought I was buying acrylic so I got very excited about color combinations.

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At the bottom you can see my final measurements of what width of acrylic I’d need to fill up behind the clock face, along the length of the screw of the clock’s mechanism

Ultimately I didn’t use acrylic for this prototype, but I have the measurements for later.

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Here you can see me trying to make sure that the clock’s hands can pass over the magnet pieces.

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Below is a snapshot of my work in Illustrator. I learned how to:

  • Turn fonts into objects by going under Type > Create Outlines, and then under Object > Path > Outline Stroke
  • Merge shapes so that the numbers and letters would be cut together as one piece. I did this by choosing Group > Shape Mode > Merge (the first option that turns them into one shape)
  • Change the fill to none and the stroke to 0.1. I had a lot of odd things going on at this point, but I figured it out with help from new friends!

I did have an issue with:

  • For reasons I don’t understand yet, all of my shapes had a 0.01 pt stroke yet half were still “groups” and had thicker lines evidenced by the laser cutter cutting them much more effectively. The other half were “paths” and had thinner lines, and took three times as long to cut.  I’ll have to ask for help before I cut again.

 

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As for materials, I was lucky to find distinctive cardboard colors in the shop! PLUS they were colors I was thinking of using anyway. Ultimately, I probably won’t use these colors going forward, now that I see them together. Future $ saved on acrylic!

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(Yes, my circle hole is off-center. It was fine until I loaded it onto the laser printer’s laptop, which has a very sensitive track pad — I didn’t notice I had accidentally moved the circle until it was too late. Now I know to be SURE my shapes are final before I load onto the laptop!)

 


Here is the 50 watt printer doing its magic.

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I used these settings:

  • For the white card board, I ran this setting twice: 24/40/500
  • For the greenish card board, I ran this setting four times: 10/24/500
  • However, I cheated a bit and removed shapes from my file that were already cut well, so the laser could focus on cutting what wasn’t completed yet. Evidence of me skipping ahead to the number 10 below after deleting the shapes above from my file (I had a back up copy of my file):

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Bad image quality evidence of me deleting shapes in my file to save time with the laser.

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I also learned that the finger behind the actual laser beam that gives the apparatus support WILL drag burned material across the surface of your cardboard. You can faintly see a line across the peace sign.

I know I could have used masking tape, but this was a prototype and I would have ended up taping the whole board…

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A classmate needed to use the laser cutter before class, so I stopped cutting even though a few of my shapes were not cut fully. I used a razor. : (

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Going forward, I’ll keep refining the design of my clock. A few quick fixes include bringing down the size of my word magnets. While I did think ahead to size these correctly, obviously that didn’t work.

I’ll also continue to learn the laser cutter!

Honestly, I don’t think I’ll fall in love with the laser cutter because I find its visual effect to be overly perfect and therefore not very interesting.

I’d be more interested in the laser cutter if I paired it with a digital pen that you can use with Illustrator.

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Intro to Fab – Class 2 and Multiples

Project

For this assignment, I created five boxes to hold pens and pencils. These also use negative space to show off the shape’s three-dimensional form. See below for how I imagine adding color to these in the future.

 All five pencil & pen boxes:
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The front and the back, looking either quite professional or more hand-made:
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I’ll add a photo of a box being used for pens and pencils shortly!

What went well
My boxes turned out very close to what I imagined! I also became comfortable with a lot of tools in the shop. Thanks, Ben, for the help during office hours.
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The unexpected
Delusions of measurements. Why does Home Depot say a piece of wood is 1″ x 4″ but is actually .75″ x 3.5″? I’m now aware that wood is often sold this way. Is it some kind of hazing ritual? Home Depot is being sued for this in Illinois, for better or worse. I was really hoping for 4″ wood for slightly larger boxes to hold more pens and pencils…
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Note: For anyone reading who cares, Home Depot locations in Manhattan won’t cut wood on site.

Next time
I haven’t glued these boxes together yet because I want to add some color. I’d like to paint each box in different two tone combinations & add windows to the circular holes out of colored acrylic. I plan to do this by adding a base layer of gesso, and then using acrylic. Open to other paint material ideas.
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Summary of order of operations:
  1. Sketch out an idea.
  2. Get lots of help.
  3. Make many of drawings to figure out measurements. I had to fix my measurements later, but this thought process helped me avoid major mistakes.
  4. Go to Home Depot.
  5. Use miter saw with stop blocks to cut pieces and dados / slots.
  6. Use band saw to create bottom pieces.
  7. Use doweling jig and hand drill to drill holes for dowel pins.
  8. Use borrowed forstner bits with drill press to create circular holes.
  9. Use sanding machine to smooth edges.
  10. Use hands to assemble pieces with dowel pins.

 

 


1. Sketch out an idea. See original idea again here.

 

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2. Get lots of help. I wasn’t sure how to go about affixing a bottom piece to the box. Ben suggested sliding a thinner piece into slots that are cut into the bottom of the box. I went ahead and did this, pictured below.

 


3. Make lots of drawings to figure out measurements. These drawings were based on my assumption that the wood would be 4″ across. Alas. I had to fix my measurements to account for a 3.5″ width, but this thought process helped me avoid major mistakes.

One other note: I spent a lot of time deciding whether to use through-cut or partial-cut dado (slots). I decided to go the easier route and use through-cut dados. (I’m not even completely sure how to use the miter saw to make partial-cut dado slots in small pieces of wood, that would truly not poke through on at least one side.)

 

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4. Go to Home Depot. I bought cheap wood, dowel pins, and a tool box (not pictured). I carried it all back to ITP on subway two stops. Wish I had a picture of me on the subway.

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5. Use miter saw with stop blocks to cut pieces and dados / slots. Ben showed me how to use the miter saw to create a dado or slot, whether a through-cut or partial-cut.
Dados:
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Top: Through-cut dado made possible with larger “sacrificial wood” piece, allowing the circular saw to have enough room to push all the way through.
Bottom: Partial-cut dado, on the left, made possible with a smaller “sacrificial wood” piece, which doesn’t allow the circular saw to cut all the way across.
Settings:
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After I learned how to use these switches, I was asked several times to show others:
Left: You can turn the black plate to the left or right to either push the blade all the way down or stop it short at a distance you can adjust using the screw.
Right: You can move this black switch up and down to either keep the blade in one place or pull the blade out towards you to make a longer cut.

6. Use band saw to create bottom pieces (I know this needs a photo).

 


7. Use doweling jig and hand drill to drill holes for dowel pins.

First, I made a visual plan for where the pins would go. I ended up putting twice as many.

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A more detailed drawing.

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Then I measured where the center of the holes would go on all four pieces. I settled on putting them either 1 or 2″ down from the top of each piece.

A test after much marking, measuring, and drilling.

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For the smaller pieces, I was able to use the doweling jig to create holes in the smaller pieces.

doweling jig

But I wasn’t able to use the doweling jig for the larger pieces because they were too wide for the jig. Instead, I used a hand drill. I regret this, and wish I had thought of using the drill press… or something else. Even though my test piece worked fine, all the other pieces ended up with tears and broken edges, like below. Lesson learned.

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8. Use borrowed forstner bits with drill press to create circular holes. In my mind, the circle would be just large enough to be a statement, but still not show the edges of the inside pieces next to it. I was lucky that a 2″ forstner drill was this perfect size.  The smaller 1 5/8″ drill made a circle that was safer in that it definitely did not show the inside edges of the other sides, but was not as visually appealing.

 

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http://www.itpblogelizabethferguson.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/IMG_9782.mov

Drilling!

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Cleaning up all the saw dust thanks to the drill press.

 


9. Use sanding machine to smooth edges and corners of 25 pieces for 5 boxes. This was a very satisfying step. I saved it for last as a way to relax after using so many machines for the first time.

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10. Use hands to assemble pieces with dowel pins. This picture is missing the bottom pieces… but they are each made of very thin plywood in order to fit inside the slot, and cut quite small to fit inside all four dados of each box.

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In total, I made 80 holes,  20 dados, and 25 wooden pieces. And all the boxes fit together!


Two more arrangements of the boxes!
These photos show off more of the imperfections of the connections and cuts. To me, these unexpected angles fit within the tone of the piece, as the pieces of wood are quite chunky and playful. For now in their plain state, they remind me of children’s wooden block toys. Once they are painted, they’ll have a  more energetic feeling to them. At that point, the angles may detract more from the boxes. We’ll see.
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Intro to Fab Class 1 – Flashlight

I built a prototype for a night vision flashlight to use while stargazing (most likely when outside the city where there are more stars!) . Ideally, a final iteration would be much smaller. With limited fabrication skills, this is what I came up with so far!

You can see my step-by-step process in the slide show below.

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Final A – Night vision flashlight for while stargazing. Doesn’t show the base…
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Final B – Night vision flashlight for while stargazing
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Creepy Final C – Night vision flashlight for while stargazing
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Side 1 – It works!
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Side 2 – I had to leave this open in order to be able to still unplug and not drain the battery by powering the arduino.

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Sketches Part II – I made a list of possible purposes for flashlights
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Sketches Part III – But with my limited fabrication skills at the moment, I stuck to what I knew I could accomplish.
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1. I went to the junk shelf!
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2. I found a lot of this metallic paper and a clear plastic tube.
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3. I also tested whether light travelled up the paper inside the tube, which it did (hard to document while using my phone’s flashlight to test).
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4. I felt pretty confident I could make the cardboard form, so I focused on whether I could light up two LEDs with a pushbutton.

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6. Testing the form. The sides are made out of toilet paper tubes.
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7. Building the middle shelf to allow room for the arduino components to live on top, and the 9V battery to live on the bottom.
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8. Making sure it fits.

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I wanted this flashlight because recently I learned how important red lights are while camping at night in Yosemite National Park. The stars were incredible. And better yet with minimal lights while you might want to set up a photograph or telescope. Dim red lights are ideal to allow your eye’s pupils remain more open, which lets in more light and ultimately more distant stars. Red lights also produce less light pollution, making it easier for people around you to also see the sky. You can see red lights being used by stargazers at 1:40 in this fun National Park Service’s video.

In making this flashlight, I was also inspired by last week’s Applications guest speaker and astrovisualizer Carter Emmart from the American Museum of Natural History.  His renderings of the universe made me want to get outdoors to see the stars even more.

What I learned:

  • The junk shelf indeed provides great inspiration. The loop-like form of my flashlight was definitely influenced by the clear tubing I found on the shelf.
  • Building with cardboard was an efficient way to test and modify my ideas without too much frustration. I can see how prototyping first with cardboard can save a lot of angst in future projects.
  • Going with my first idea felt most natural. I had other ideas but they weren’t as clear in my mind. … nor did I know how to safely combine water and LEDs…
  • It was fun to hide my Arduino and breadboard in my flashlight. But the size of these components required that I create a larger flashlight than I originally wanted to.

Design issues/What I’d like to know:

  • How to build with other physical materials, such as wood to construct the flashlight’s body and other types of plastic for the lightbulb’s loop.
  • Obviously, the open sides are not ideal! I left this issue alone so I can unplug the battery and turn the flashlight on. Soon I would learn how to build switches myself so they can be built into the form of an object.